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History of agriculture and Baborów breweries ANG

From the moment of its foundation in the 13th century, Baborów showed the features of a rural settlement. Agriculture dominated in the city. There were farms of the peasant type, belonging to the townspeople and homesteads of small-scale homeworkers. Craft and trade - as urban activities - played a secondary role, giving way to agriculture. The buildings in Baborów (outside the market square) had a rural character. Most of the city's former population made a living from agriculture. In the 16th century, a new social group appeared in the town - cottage workers (settlers). They were assigned a small piece of land on which they could only build a house. The settlers were supposed to work in the Baborów manor farm. It was an additional workforce.
At the end of the 18th century (1787), the town was expanded, but it still retained its rural appearance. Apart from residential houses (74 in the city and 187 in the suburbs), there were 114 barns and 72 stables. Most of the houses were wooden, only 1/5 of the buildings were covered with tiles. The barns were situated at today's ul. Wiejska.
In 1840, farmers from Baborów cultivated 5,596 acres of land (1,399 ha). The Baborów manor (farm) comprised 468 acres of land (142 ha), 5 ha of meadows and 2.5 ha of wastelands. The Baborovians kept 252 horses, 1,220 cows and 307 pigs in their farms. Rye, wheat, oats, barley, flax, rape, clover, hops and potatoes were cultivated on a large scale. In 1860, the agricultural livestock consisted of: 198 horses, 30 foals (150 horses were used for field work), 370 cows, 11 bulls, 148 calves, 76 pigs, 74 piglets and 78 goats. In 1849, agriculture was the main occupation for 74.8% of Baborów inhabitants.
At the beginning of the 20th century, about 21% of the population of Baborów made a living from individual farms. In 1939, the largest host in the city was Joseph Seemann. His farm was 75 ha. On the other hand, the parish of Baborów owned 45 leased hectares.
In 1811, there were two breweries in the town: town and estate (farm). They satisfied the needs of both local and local farmers. The growing demand for beer production led to the opening of two more breweries. Thus, at the end of the 19th century, there were four breweries in the city.
In 1862, the "Słodownia Baborów", owned by J. Felbie, was established. In 1913. A barley, fruit and vegetable dryer was added to it.
Due to low demand and sales for the beer produced, four breweries were closed in the interwar period: J. Felbier, K. Klein, A. Bilzner and A. Felbier. The reason for this was the fact that the former inhabitants of the city preferred to consume beer produced in larger and more modern breweries (Głubczyce, Racibórz). The malt houses also collapsed. Out of four - belonging to J. Felbier, J. Wittek, J. Himmel and A. Bilzer - only one by J. Felbier has survived. It employed five employees. In the years 1936/1937, it produced 303 tons of Pils malt. After 1945, the ruins of the malt house at ul. Opawska was demolished. In 1932. - along with a lot of barley - Wittka's malt house burned down. Despite the efforts of the fire brigade, it was not possible to save her. The frontline operations in 1945 contributed to the destruction of 45% of the malt's granary at ul. Głubczycka.

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